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Part of the study of genetics involves being able to predict the appearance or and genetics or of the offspring of animals or people. Sometimes this is just for fun such as breeding dogs to get a certain color, but sometimes it is very serious, as when dealing with diseases that can be passed from parents to children.
Without any understanding of the molecular basis of how some gene works, we can still identify that some trait is genetic. Indeed, genetics had its origins in the late 1800s, well before any concept of the molecular basis of heredity. The basic unit of inheritance is the . This basic unit is a length of DNA on a chromosome that does something particular for an organism. A gene can come in more than one form. These flavors of genes are called . These forms of a gene represent one or more DNA sequences in a gene that produces a particular phenotypic result. Several different mutations might cause a gene to produce a defective protein. All of these mutations might be lumped into a single allele - the gene in a form that produces a defective protein. There isn't necessarily a one to one mapping between mutations to the DNA sequence of a gene and different alleles for that gene. Alleles are just broad variants of a gene that can produce different results. Genes come in copies per individual. The different alleles of a gene may be dominant and recessive with respect to each other. The basic prediction tool for Mendelian genetics is the .


Scroll down to view the answers below-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part of the study of genetics involves being able to predict the appearance or Phenotype and genetics or Genotype of the offspring of animals or people. Sometimes this is just for fun such as breeding dogs to get a certain color, but sometimes it is very serious, as when dealing with diseases that can be passed from parents to children.
Without any understanding of the molecular basis of how some gene works, we can still identify that some trait is genetic. Indeed, genetics had its origins in the late 1800s, well before any concept of the molecular basis of heredity. The basic unit of inheritance is the Gene. This basic unit is a length of DNA on a chromosome that does something particular for an organism. A gene can come in more than one form. These flavors of genes are called Alleles. These forms of a gene represent one or more DNA sequences in a gene that produces a particular phenotypic result. Several different mutations might cause a gene to produce a defective protein. All of these mutations might be lumped into a single allele - the gene in a form that produces a defective protein. There isn't necessarily a one to one mapping between mutations to the DNA sequence of a gene and different alleles for that gene. Alleles are just broad variants of a gene that can produce different results. Genes come in twocopies per individual. The different alleles of a gene may be dominant and recessive with respect to each other. The basic prediction tool for Mendelian genetics is the Punnett square.

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experiment consisted of three parts; the purebred, the f1 cross, and the f2 cross. Starting with the purebred plants plants that have the same traits and would pass these traits to their offspring. He chose to cross purebreds for two different traits together. A cross between a purebred round pea and a purebred wrinkled pea was done. Another cross was done between a yellow pea and a green pea. The results, , were collected, and it was found that each offspring had become a round or yellow seed. In all, seven crosses were done between purebred plants of opposite traits. What had happened in all seven cases was that one trait remained, and the other trait was not seen. This was odd, because it seemed as if the other traits had disappeared. This was not the case, as he would later discover during his f1 cross. The traits of green and wrinkled were essentially absorbed by the cross and were still there, just not showing. To explain this phenomenon, Mendel came up with a theory that some traits are over others; the different traits are known as alleles.

Scroll down to view the answers below-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gregor Mendel's experiment consisted of three parts; the purebred, the f1 cross, and the f2 cross. Starting with the purebred plants plants that have the same traits and would pass these traits to their offspring. He chose to cross purebreds for two different traits together. A cross between a purebred round pea and a purebred wrinkled pea was done. Another cross was done between a yellow pea and a green pea. The results, f1, were collected, and it was found that each offspring had become a round or yellow seed. In all, seven crosses were done between purebred plants of opposite traits. What had happened in all seven cases was that one trait remained, and the other trait was not seen. This was odd, because it seemed as if the other traits had disappeared. This was not the case, as he would later discover during his f1 cross. The traits of green and wrinkled were essentially absorbed by the cross and were still there, just not showing. To explain this phenomenon, Mendel came up with a theory that some traits are dominant over others; the different traits are known as alleles.

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